China's Innovative Diplomatic Strategy in the New Era

China Internation Studies, Jan/Feb 2015 | 作者: Yang Jiemian | 时间: 2015-05-27 | 责编: 李敏捷
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Since the 18th Party Congress of the Communist Party, marking the start of what this article refers to as the “New Era”, China’s diplomacy has been under the strong leadership of General Secretary Xi Jinping. While maintaining traditions, China’s diplomacy has been characterized by exploration and innovation efforts, reflecting the diplomatic thoughts of China’s three identities: a socialist, developing and global power. China’s diplomatic strategic thinking must keep pace with the times, emphasize tolerance, mutual learning and win-win cooperation, and forge partnerships rather than alliances. China’s diplomacy places emphasis on confronting and initiating change. As an integral part of its diplomatic theory and practice, China’s diplomatic thoughts, strategies and policy in the New Era must make progress by taking advantage of opportunities, creating conditions and tackling challenges. In this way, it will become easier for China to achieve its two centenary goals and the “Chinese Dream,” and to contribute more to the world’s peace, development, cooperation and win-win situations.

 

Historical Background and Current Needs

 

Today’s world is undergoing unprecedented changes. According to Cui Liru,  Senior Advisor to China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, a major change “is defined as a major result of the world’s long-term development and change; furthermore, it highlights a historic turning point or dramatic change in its development process.” [2] At present, the world’s entry into a new age and Asia’s transformation constitute China’s external environment. Internally, China is being confronted with a new challenge: reform and social development are accelerating, overlapping and tackling difficulties. The fast-changing external and internal situations require that China intensify its diplomatic exploration and innovation efforts on the basis of its traditions.

 

China’s development needs

The foremost goal of China’s diplomacy is to serve the needs of its political, economic, social and cultural developments. Since Reform and Opening started more than three decades ago, China’s comprehensive national strength has grown dramatically, with sustained progress in its political and economic systems. Meanwhile, the public opinion environment in China has changed drastically, China’s diplomacy has expanded in both depth and breadth, and internal and external political factors have increasingly come into interaction. The diversity of China’s domestic environment has numerous implications: China should adopt diplomatic thoughts that are more comprehensive, a diplomatic strategy that is more relevant to the times, diplomatic practices that are more mature, strive for the overall modernization of diplomatic approaches, and seek to lay a solid basis of public understanding and support inside China. In short, only through innovation will China’s diplomacy be able to safeguard its national core and major interests, reflect the public opinion striving for China’s national rejuvenation, create a favorable external environment and promote China’s economic and social development.

 

Asia’s development needs

As a major country in Asia, China must to use its diplomacy to contribute more to the region’s progress. Since the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Asian countries have experienced three historical stages: national awakening, national independence, and economic and political development. These three stages have produced forward-looking people and innovative ideas. India has had Gandhi and Gandhism; Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh and Ho Chi Minh’s thoughts; Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew and Lee Kuan Yew’s thoughts; Malaysia, Mahathir and Mahathirism. In China, the leadership of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao and others has promoted a Chinese version of Marxism, gradually establishing and developing a set of theories of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Since the end of World War II, China has pro-posed diplomatic ideas such as the “Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence,” “Asian Values,” “ASEAN Consensus,” and the “Shanghai Spirit.” These ideas have withstood the test of time, have been expanded beyond Asia and have gained recognition and approval by the international community.

In recent years, Asia has become the primary engine of global economic growth, and its regional leaders and organizations have achieved growing political and strategic importance. In spite of this, some Asian countries have experienced the unpopular rising trend of right-wing and extremist ideas, and it has become more necessary to develop and boost diplomatic ideas and practices with Asian characteristics.

At present, Asia needs to focus on economic and social development, consolidation of its economic cooperation mechanisms, develop new concepts of security, build a new security architecture, enhance the “One Belt, One Road” (the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road), overcome interference from both inside and outside the region, and create a new environment that encourages peace and development.

 

Developing country needs

Developing countries constitute the greatest number of actors in contemporary international relations, and they are the main driving force of the democratization of contemporary international relations. The 1950s’ Asian-African Conference, the Bandung Spirit and the later “Non-Aligned Movement” and “Group of 77” all played a positive and historic role in international and economic affairs. Since the advent of the 21st century, the majority of developing countries have consistently called for the establishment of a just and more rational international order, demanding a change in the unfavorable strategic situation, seeking strategic initiatives, and actively planning a development path in line with contemporary global and national situations, so as to be better prepare for a variety of traditional and non-traditional, regional and global challenges. However, as a whole, developing countries have not yet formed any internal and comprehensive system of diplomatic theory, common and coherent strategic objectives, harmonized policy initiatives, or the commensurate power to influence or set rules. There is an urgent need for developing countries to strengthen their soft power, and they hope that major developing countries, such as China, can play a greater role in constructing diplomatic theories, strategic approaches and policy planning.

 

Global development needs

According the 18th Party Congress report, “the global trend toward multi-polarity and economic globalization is deepening. Cultural diversity is increasing, and an information society is fast emerging.”[3]  These four trends sum up the development trends of the world. As these four trends are accelerated, in order to increase the positive energy and achieve win-win cooperation, new ideas, new strategies, and new policies must be adopted. Currently, of the proposals and projects concerning world affairs and international relations, the series of theories and practices advocated by China have become the focus of international attention.

Despite having different motives, both developed and developing countries have called on China to play a greater international role, to undertake more international obligations, and to gradually expand its influence from economy to such areas as ideology and culture, strategy, and opinion leadership. Meanwhile, China will contribute to the world’s peace, development, cooperation and win-win situations. China also needs to further study the theories of global significance, to strengthen its global awareness and its sense of responsibility as a major country, and to become more committed to making the international system more just and rational.

 

Innovation of China’s Diplomatic Thoughts

 

China’s diplomacy in the New Era has evolved from the diplomatic thoughts of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao. It has carried forward the fine components of foreign and Chinese cultures, and it has drawn from global diplomatic ideas. However, as today’s internal and external economic, political, diplomatic, technological, and social situations rapidly change, and as China’s role in the world grows and diversifies, China’s diplomacy will be confronted with many new conditions and tasks. Exploration and innovation have become the focus of China’s diplomatic thoughts.

 

China as a socialist power

As the West still dominates the diplomatic thinking of the international community, forging diplomatic thinking with the characteristic of a socialist country in the East is especially important for socialist China under the leadership of the Communist Party.

Socialist China’s diplomatic ideas continue to grow in abundance. For two years, the efforts of comprehensively deepening reform, promoting a governance system and governance capabilities, and governing the country according to the law have enriched the theory and practice of socialism with Chinese characteristics. These efforts have put new meaning into China’s diplomatic ideas: the links between China’s reform and international development, and the consistency between domestic governance and global governance. According to Professor Su Changhe, while strengthening the diplomatic material basis, the new Chinese leadership has paid more attention to laying an ideological foundation, enhancing the self-confidence of the Chinese people and encouraging China to participate in international exchanges with self-reliance, self-confidence and self-respect. The objective is to lay an ideological foundation for conducting independent diplomatic activities. [4] In addition, in the face of turmoil in North Africa and the Middle East and rising extremism and terrorism, China’s diplomatic thoughts have attached more importance to the Communist Party’s leadership of diplomacy and China’s overall security, and have stressed confidence in China’s development path, theories, systems and values. All of these developments have provided socialist countries, in the fast-changing global scene, with new ideological experiences.[5]

Socialist China has given new meaning to the “Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence,” the so-called bedrock of Chinese diplomacy. China’s current Constitution reads: “China consistently carries out an independent foreign policy and adheres to the five principles of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.” In the early days of socialist China, China, India and Myanmar jointly initiated the Five Principles, gaining moral support for new diplomacy. In the early post-Cold War period, socialist China used the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence to diplomatically defend itself against the United States and the West. Today, when explaining the Five Principles, socialist China argues for “sovereign equality, common security, common development, win-win cooperation, inclusiveness and mutual learning, and fairness and justice.” Such articulations further reflect socialist China’s growing confidence and ambitiousness, as well as its readiness to “explore ways to better promote the Five Principles in the New Era, so as to build a new type of international relations and a better world of win-win cooperation.”

Socialist China’s diplomatic thoughts have become a new alternative to the Western approach. As China continues to make new domestic and international achievements, its socialist development path has taken on new significance, by providing the international community with an alternative to the Western path, and offering diverse new ideas and practices. Compared with the early post-Cold War period, China’s diplomatic thoughts in the New Era put more emphasis on socialism, and confidently let the international community know about the “Chinese Dream,” the “new concept of morality and interests” and the “democratization of international relations” and other concepts, offering the world “upgraded versions” of national development path options.

 

China’s diplomacy as a developing power

China is a major developing country, and as such, its political and diplomatic foundations are rooted in the developing world. China and other developing countries share many diplomatic thoughts, and to various degrees and levels China’s diplomatic ideas embody the aspirations and trends of developing countries.

 China reflects the diplomatic thoughts of developing countries in Asia. Asia is a region in which many developing countries are located, and China’s diplomatic thoughts notably reflect the features of Asia’s developing countries. At present, the diplomatic thoughts of Asia’s developing countries center on regional cooperation. In other words, through regional and sub-regional cooperation, Asia’s developing countries are seeking to expand the political, diplomatic, economic and cultural influence of Asia and Asian countries. China believes that development should be the top priority for Asia’s developing countries, so it has proposed the concept that “Asia’s matters should be handled by Asians.” China’s efforts concerning free trade zones and financial cooperation, infrastructure connectivity, Asian values and Asian consciousness epitomize the diplomatic thoughts of Asia’s developing countries, producing an assemblage and serving as a model. The “Asian Dream” and the “Asia Pacific Dream,” both proposed by China, largely reflect Asia’s shared development direction.

China reflects the diplomatic thoughts of developing countries. During the Cold War, a vast number of developing countries subscribed to the diplomatic ideas of the “Non-Aligned Movement,” diverging from the Eastern or Western blocs, and proposed the diplomatic objective of establishing a just and rational international new order. Since the end of the Cold War, developing countries have gained strength through unity at regional levels across various fields, gradually working towards the reorganization and development of the international system and order. China shares the same fate as the vast number of developing countries. It has established the China-ASEAN cooperation mechanism, the China-Africa Cooperation Forum, the China-Arab Cooperation Forum, the China-South Pacific Islands Forum, the China-Latin America Cooperation Forum, among others, and it has achieved full coverage of regional cooperation mechanisms with developing countries. Out of economic and political considerations, China has adhered to its own status as a developing nation. In diplomacy, China emphasizes cooperation, reflecting the aspirations of the vast number of developing countries. By developing diplomatic thoughts and accommodating long-term and short-term interests, China brings new concepts and connotations to our world.

At the same time, China reflects the diplomatic thoughts of a major developing country. The sudden emergence of developing countries – in particular, the BRICs – on the world stage, has been a major development in contemporary international relations. In June 2009, the leaders of China, Russia, India and Brazil held their first meeting in Russia to start the “BRIC” cooperation mechanism. In December 2010, South Africa joined the mechanism, and “BRIC” officially changed its name to “BRICS.” The BRICS mechanism has gradually improved, making cooperation more concrete and widening international influence.

In light of this, China’s recent Conference on Foreign Affairs clarified the roles of the major developing countries in the development of China’s “major power relationship,” mapping a new direction for China and other developing countries. China’s diplomatic ideology as a major developing country echoes the thoughts of other major developing countries. Marcus Vinicius de Freitas, a professor of international relations at Brazil’s Armando Alvares Penteado Foundation, asserts that it is extremely important to developing countries that large developing countries, including China, become more involved in global economic and political affairs, arguing that developing countries can seek a greater role for developing countries, and that they are an important force for change in the current global scene, which is dominated by Western developed countries.[6]

 

The diplomatic approaches of China as a global power

Since 2008, China has become a globally recognized power, making it even more urgent for China to build its diplomatic ideology as a global power.

China is establishing an ideological model of a global power’s diplomacy. In the past, China’s comprehensive national strength and influence were quite limited, placing it at the margins of the world stage. Naturally, China preferred a “low cost, low risk and high return” ideology in its foreign policy. Given the transformation in its international status and role, China is now developing “major power” diplomatic theories with Chinese characteristics. In terms of its diplomatic philosophy, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of CPC Central Committee, insists on pacifist ideas, such as “harmony is most precious” and “a warlike state, however big it may be, will eventually fall.” As for diplomatic interests, Xi emphasizes the open-mindedness necessary for a global power’s diplomacy, quoting the line: “The sage does not accumulate (for himself). The more that he expends for others, the more does he possess of his own; the more that he gives to others, the more does he have himself.” In addition, Xi’s diplomatic approach also reflects that of a major power. He has expressed the wish to assume more international responsibilities and obligations, and he has created the idea of “sharing the express train development” and “welcoming hitchhikers.”

China stresses the development of major country diplomatic theory in the contemporary world. In modern times, the West has largely dominated diplomatic theory. The traditional diplomatic theory of great powers has served the interests and values of the West by highlighting issues such as the power game, geo-strategy, land power and sea power, and the zero-sum game. Seeking to break new ground and inspire future generations, Xi is committed to establishing a forward-looking and groundbreaking theoretical framework for major power diplomacy, laying out guiding principles, strategic thinking and policy planning. While pursuing the “Chinese Dream” and the “Asia-Pacific Dream”, China has put forward the Sino-Russian “strategic guidance,” “a new type of major country relationship” between China and the United States, “major developing countries,” a “community of common destiny” and other new concepts. These concepts have developed China’s diplomatic thoughts as a major country, reflecting changing times, the implications of international relations and China’s repositioning.

  China has elaborated on its diplomatic thoughts as a major country. In the information age, diplomacy requires strong publicity efforts. While conducting diplomacy as a major country, China is paying more attention to carrying out publicity activities. For the past two years, China has illustrated its diplomatic thoughts as a major country and worked hard to help the world to know and understand China’s new diplomacy. According to Xi Jinping, “We need to do more to refine and explain our culture, and to expand external communication platforms and channels. So the values of contemporary China will dominate our international exchange and communications. When the ‘Chinese Dream’ is promoted and explained, it should be done in close combination with contemporary Chinese values.” [7] As China’s diplomatic ideas as a major country become more widespread, this will help extensively promote Chinese culture and ideology, and increase the depth and breadth of China’s diplomatic thoughts, helping China gain more acceptance and recognition from the international community.

 

Characteristics of China’s diplomatic strategies

Today’s world should be focused on the pursuit of peace, development, cooperation, and win-win situations. China’s diplomatic strategies pay close attention to these goals when analyzing situations, determining goals, planning approaches, adopting methods, creating conditions and tackling challenges.

China’s strategic guiding ideology is in step with the times.

In 2008, China became one of the main countries in the G20. In 2010, it became the world’s second-largest economy. In 2014, in purchasing-power-parity terms, China was ranked the world’s largest economy, just ahead of the United States. All of these developments create unprecedented opportunities for China to play a greater role in global affairs and diplomacy. But at the same time, China has faced unprecedented challenges because it has become a great concern to some countries, and in particular, the strategic focus of the Asia-Pacific region. Since the 18th Party Congress, Xi Jinping has reiterated strengthening strategic thinking, developing a firm strategy, having strategic patience, and increasing strategic input in face of new situations. On numerous national and international occasions, President Xi has expounded on the origin, framework and principles of China’s contemporary international strategic thinking. He has put forward the strategic theory of overall security and diplomatic strategy. Meanwhile, China is moving through history and seizing opportunities. China has adopted a time frame of 10 or even more years to coordinate its strategies concerning various countries, regions and fields. Guided by progressive and innovative strategic thinking, China’s foreign policy follows the historical trend and promotes world development.

 

China’s diplomatic strategy has new connotations of inclu-siveness, mutual learning and win-win cooperation.

As an emerging power, China is in a long-term effort to achieve the “Chinese Dream” and its “two centenary goals,” and it needs to maximize unity. Therefore, inclusiveness, mutual learning and win-win cooperation are not only the goal of China’s diplomatic strategy, but also its strategic approaches. As for the goal of China’s diplomatic strategy, it “should respect the diversity of civilizations and development paths,” and it “should raise awareness about human beings sharing a community of common destiny.” With regards to its strategic approach, China emphasizes the need to “learn from others to make up for its own shortcomings” and the idea that a nation “should accommodate the legitimate concerns of others when pursuing its own interests.” [8]

 

China’s diplomatic strategies have consolidated and upgraded its strategic partnerships

The development of various types of partnership is an important strategic goal of China’s diplomacy. In 1993, China and Brazil established a strategic partnership, kicking off China’s efforts to establish strategic partnerships with important countries. For more than 20 years, China’s strategic partnerships have continued to grow in depth, and they are now entering a stage of “upgrading,” exemplified by the “comprehensive strategic partnership” and “all-round friendly and cooperative partnership.” Over the past two years, China has elevated its ties with 12 countries to “comprehensive strategic partnerships,” stressing bilateral consultation, coordination and cooperation at the global and regional levels. Some of the strategic partnerships also involve security and military issues. In addition, China has also elevated its ties with eight countries to “all-round friendly and cooperative partnerships.”

China is actively building a global network of partners by establishing 72 different forms of partnership with 67 countries and five regional organizations. This new practice of forging partnerships rather than alliances speaks to China’s unique diplomatic approach as a major country.[9] At the recent Conference on Foreign Affairs, Xi Jinping said, “We should uphold China’s development opportunities and space and work hard to form a network of high interdependence and mutual benefit through extensive and mutually beneficial business and technological cooperation. We should make more friends while abiding by the principle of non-alignment and build a global network of partnership.”[10]

In future, as the situation develops, China needs to promote worldwide and civil cooperation. When building a network of high interdependence and mutual benefit and conducting multi-field and civil cooperation, China will closely consider its national and global strategies, producing favorable results in a gradual manner. China’s purpose is to strengthen win-win cooperation with relevant countries and regions within the framework of the international system.

 

Characteristics of China’s New Diplomatic Practice

 

The CCP leadership under General Secretary Xi Jinping has inherited good diplomatic practices, such as an overall perspective, justice, equality, pragmatism and populism. They have also developed new characteristics against the new background.

 

 Traditions are followed dynamically and adjusted pragmatically.

China’s diplomacy has a very strong sense of continuity, and the current collective leadership has managed to inherit tradition in a dynamic fashion. Faced with new developments on the international stage and in the surrounding regions, China has in recent years devoted considerable energy to high-level visits and meetings involving Chinese leaders, extensively promoting friendship and partnerships with neighboring countries. As the Ukraine and Crimea crisis broke out and Russian-American relations were strained, China adjusted its trilateral relations, making an effort to maintain regional peace and stability. When dealing with the difficulties of the Sino-American relationship, China has harmonized internal factors and vigorously taken advantage of external factors, allowing the two countries to interact in a constructive manner. Climate change and trade cooperation helped stabilize their relations.

Sino-Japanese relations provide yet another example. After two years of struggling to uphold its principle, China used the opportunity of hosting the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing to achieve a partial change in Sino-Japanese relations by reaching the “four-point agreement.” As for disputes over rights and interests in the South China Sea, China stabilized the regional situation by adopting “dual-track” diplomacy and by focusing on the Philippines and Vietnam.

 

China clarifies its bottom line and matches words with deeds.

Diplomacy must sometimes be fuzzy, but other times it must be clear. When dealing with hot and difficult issues in diplomacy, China insists on discussing issues openly, and explaining pros and cons in a sensible fashion. As a result, China’s pledges and warnings about diplomatic affairs have become trusted, making China’s diplomacy more practicable and predictable. According to Professor Jin Canrong, China has repeatedly stressed “the bottom line principle” regarding international affairs, showing that China is further determined to safeguard its interests and clarify its prerequisites for peace and development. For example, on several occasions President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang have stressed international cooperation, while also reiterating that China will not give up its core interests, and will not sacrifice its core interests for anything – this, simply put, is the “bottom line principle.”[11]  Regarding the issue of peace and development, China emphasizes that all parties should adopt the road of peaceful development. In terms of a new type of major-country relations between China and the United States, China has underlined both the direction and the bottom line. Starting two years ago, the international community has had a more profound understanding of China’s diplomacy being “true in word and resolute in deed.”

 

Chinese leaders’ new-style diplomacy

For two years, President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang have appeared in the international arena with new images, and devoted considerable effort and time to diplomatic work. Both Xi and Li have received countless guests from various countries, visited dozens of countries in Asia, Europe, North and South America, Africa and Oceania, and attended numerous important multilateral meetings. In particular, when the Summit of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia and the APEC Summit were held in Beijing, in May and November 2014 respectively, Chinese leaders demonstrated their ability to host and lead the events, bolstering China’s influence and rule-making authority in global affairs. Chinese leaders were diligent, easy-going, natural and gentle in diplomatic activities, and this was widely acclaimed by the international community. Moreover, these activities gave the international community more confidence in China’s continued development and progress.[12]  In addition, due to their special status and role, the wives of the Chinese President and Premier have also added color to China’s diplomacy, playing an important role in demonstrating China’s diplomatic soft power.

 

Principles and friendship

Compared with Western and American diplomatic policies, which focus on quick success and material gains, China’s diplomacy values both principles and friendship. Against the backdrop of continued sanctions that Western countries have imposed on Zimbabwe, China cherishes its traditional friendship with the Southern African nation. On August 25, 2014, when meeting President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, President Xi Jinping spoke highly of the longstanding friendship between China and Zimbabwe and President Mugabe’s significant contributions towards the development of their bilateral relations, stressing that the Chinese people value friendship and will never forget old friends. [13] China and Romania once belonged to the socialist camp, and they both later chose development paths suitable to their national conditions. Although diplomacy is technically the relationship between countries, it does not exclude individual emotions. President Xi Jinping coordinates international relations with personal feelings. On September 2, 2014, in a meeting with Romania’s Prime Minister Punta, Xi said, “Speaking of Sino-Romanian relations, we will first think of “friendship.” People of my age have been edified by the friendship between China and Romania very early. At that time, excellent Romanian films were well known in China. China and Romania always pay each other mutual respect, treat each other with sincerity and share weal and woe. The tree of Sino-Romanian friendship is flourishing with countless rich fruits.” [14]Similar examples abound, fully embodying the emphasis of China’s diplomacy on principle and friendship, which is also an important reason why China’s diplomacy has become increasingly acclaimed in the international community.

 

Conclusion

 

The collective leadership under General Secretary Xi Jinping has been vigorously promoting diplomatic thoughts and strategies with Chinese characteristics, enriching China’s diplomatic practice and guiding China’s diplomatic strategy and development. History tells us that China will not always have a smooth journey ahead, and that China’s diplomatic theory, strategy and practice should always maintain a high degree of vigilance, particularly guarding against making major mistakes. Therefore, China’s future diplomatic theory, strategy and practice will continue to adjust to the changing times and missions. The development of the theory needs to be more systematic, strengthening inner and mutual logic connections among various new concepts and thoughts. The strategy must involve more careful consideration, balancing strategic targets, conditions and the bottom line. The policy initiative must become more comprehensive, reinforcing bilateral, multilateral and reverse relations. And finally, public opinion guidance must be undertaken with more foresight, and external and internal communications should be promoted methodically and vigorously.

 

 



[1] Yang Jiemian is Director of the Academic Committee of Shanghai Institutes for International Studies.

[2] Cui Liru: “The changing international situation and the transition of China’s foreign policy”, Journal of International Relations, No.4, 2014, p.3.

 

[3]  “Report to the 18th National Congress of the CCP(full text)”, Xinhuanet, November 19, 2012, http://www.xj.xinhuanet.com/2012-11/19/c_113722546_11.htm.

 

[4] Su Changhe: “Four aspects of Xi Jinping’s diplomatic thoughts”, People’s Forum, Volume 6, 2014, pp.28-30.

 

[5] “Xi Jinping’s speech At Meeting Marking the 60th Anniversary Of the Initiation of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence (full text)”, Xinhuanet.com, June 28, 2014, http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2014-06/28/c_1111364206.htm.

 

[6]  “A Brazilian scholar: major developing countries should join hands to build a new international order”, chinesetoday.com, November 15, 2014, http://www.chinesetoday.com/zh/article/943428.

 

[7]  “Xi Jinping: Building a culturally advanced socialist nation, and striving to improve the nation’s cultural soft power”, Xinhuanet.com, December 31, 2013.

 

[8] “Report to the 18th National Congress of the CCP (full text)”, Xinhuanet.com, November 19, 2012, http://www.xj.xinhuanet.com/2012-11/19/c_113722546_11.htm.

 

[9]  “Toast by Foreign Minister Wang Yi at New Year Reception for 2015”, December 11, 2014,

http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1218740.shtml.

[10] “The Central Conference on Work Relating to Foreign Affairs Held in Beijing”, People’s Daily, November 30, 2014, http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2014/1130/c1024-26118788.html.

 

[11] Jin Canrong and Wang Hao,“New ideas and new features of Chinese diplomacy since the 18th National Congress of the CCP,”Journal of Hubei University (Philosophy and Social Science), May 2014, p.29.

 

[12] Zhang Qingmin, “Understanding the Chinese diplomacy since the 18th National Congress of the CCP”, Foreign Affairs Review, No.2, 2014, pp.15-16.

 

[13] “Xi Jinping Holds Talks with President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe,” http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1185984.shtml.

 

[14] “Xi Jinping Meets with Prime Minister Victor-Viorel Ponta of Romania”,  http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1188295.shtml.

 

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